1900] 1901] 1902] 1903] 1904]

Listing of Additional Information on the Herzl Timeline 

Theodor Herzl
Jewish History & Culture
General History & Culture




January 12: Premiere of "I Love You" in the Vienna Burgtheater.

February 15: Herzl is received by Austrian Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. Herzl writes a memorandum about the Jewish Colonial Bank. The subscriptions to the Bank are prohibited in Austria and Herzl wants to prevent that little people will lose their money.

March 9: Another meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. The subscribers are permitted to complete their payments and receive their shares.

March 17: Luncheon at Eulenburg-Hertefeld, the German ambassador in Vienna.

March 19: Meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber.

March 27: Meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber about sanctioning the Viennese electoral reform. He requests that the Neue Freie Presse should not oppose the reform too massively.

April 13: Meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. Discussion of the Austrian interior policy.

April 17 - 30: Journey to Karlsruhe, Paris and London.

April 18: Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden receives Herzl. Because of the international political situation, Germany does not wish to expose herself in Turkey, but Herzl should get himself recommended to the Sultan by Austria.

April 20: Max Nordau introduces Herzl to Alfred Austin who gives him a friendly letter to Lord Salisbury, the British Prime Minister. Herzl seeks British support in Constantinople. Salisbury does not receive Herzl "on account of the war worries".

April 25 - 27: Crisis in the Jewish Colonial Bank. Herzl calls a meeting of the directors, over their heads. Kann, Lurie and Wolffsohn absent themselves. Herzl has the bank affairs reviewed by an accountant and a bank expert. Herzl issues instructions for the acceleration of the work.

April 30: Coincidental meeting with Bernard Lazare in Paris. Lazare intends to go to Constantinople. "I asked him if he wouldn't try to win Ambassador Constans for our cause."

April: Herzl writes "Solon in Lydien".

May 1: J. Kann resigns as director of the Bank.

May 3: Meeting with Austrian Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. Herzl drafts Koerber's "Language Bill" speech. On May, 10 Koerber makes an entirely different speech. ("What does he think about my secretarial services? That I want a decoration or something like that? I am only doing it so he will recommend me to Goluchowski, and the latter to the Sultan.")

May 5: Wolffsohn offers his resignation from the Bank.

May 13: Herzl makes a Zionist speech at the "Israelitische Allianz".

May 20: Herzl turns to Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber to intervene for the Rumanian Jews who have no permission to cross the border to Austria.

May 23: Meeting with Ernest von Koerber.

May 25 - 29: Special conference of the larger Actions Committee and the Trust. A new Bank Commission is appointed. It is also decided that the next Zionist Congress will be held in London.

June 16: Herzl meets Arminius Vámbéry who will write to the Sultan on Herzl's behalf.

June 19: Herzl and Wolffsohn settle their differences about the Trust's affairs. And Herzl asks his good dear "Daade" to address him by the familiar "Du" instead of the formal "Sie".

July 1: Herzl turns to Prime Minister Koerber and asks him to use his influence with the Sultan to permit the Rumanian Jews to immigrate into Turkey and to receive him, in order to discuss the question of colonization and settlement.

July 31: Herzl leaves Altaussee and travels to Luzern, Paris and London where he arrives sick on August, 7.

August 11: Mass meeting of the English Zionist Federation in East End.

August 12: Garden Party in Regent's Park.

August 13 - 16: The Fourth Zionist Congress convenes in London.

September 16: Herzl meets Arminius Vámbéry in Budapest. ("He gave me his word of honor that the Sultan would receive me by May.")

October 5: The English Zionist Federation's poll: 60 candidates for Parliament declare themselves in favor of Zionism.

October 8: Meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber.

October 17: Meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber.

October: Herzl completes a drama in four acts "Gretel".

November 6: Herzl writes to Wolffsohn. He wants him to ask Kann in The Hague whether he can raise £ 700.000 for a Turkish loan.

November 13: Herzl meets the French millionaire Reitlinger and discusses the idea of redeeming the Turkish debt.

November 14: Herzl seeks a meeting with Lord Rothschild.

November 16: Kann's firm is making the £ 700.000 available.

December 2: First visit of the Turkish agent Eduard Crespi in Vienna.

December 8: Meeting with Arminius Vámbéry in Budapest. They discuss the Turkish loan.



The world Jewish population is about 10,600.000.

The Jewish Agricultural Society is organized by the Baron de Hirsch Fund to promote farming among the US Jews.

Baron Edmond de Rothschild announces that he will donate his Palestine colonies to the Jewish Colonization Association. The JCA makes drastic cuts, the farmers will not be longer subsidized. The entire administrative staff of Baron Rothschild is dismissed.

Pardes, a cooperative society for the marketing of citrus, is founded in Petah Tikvah by a small group of orange grove owners.

"Ost und West" - "East and West", an illustrated German Jewish monthly begins publication in Berlin.

The Jews of Rumania face a new outbreak of antisemitism.

The economic situation in Palestine worsens.

The Labor Organization of Palestine is founded in Jaffa.


January: Austria-Hungary: Ernest von Koerber is appointed Prime Minister.

A nationalist uprising in China (Boxer Rebellion) is crushed by an international force.

October: Bernhard von Bülow is appointed German Reich Chancellor.

Guglielmo Marconi takes out his famous patent Nr. 7777 for "tuned or syntonic telegraphy". In December 1901 he will use his system for transmitting the first wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. John's, Newfoundland, a distance of 2,100 miles.


Theodor Herzl
Jewish History & Culture
General History & Culture




January: Ernest von Koerber informs Herzl that a group of industrialists are interested in buying the Neue Freie Presse or in founding a new paper. Herzl looks forward to gain his freedom and to acquire power and influence for the Zionist movement. At the last moment the negotiations collapse.

At the End of January it is also clear that the hope for the Turkish loan is gone. ("The wind blows through the stubble. I feel the autumn of my life approaching. I am in danger of leaving no work to the world and no property to my children.")

February 3 - 15: Journey to Paris and London.

February 5: Herzl meets Reitlinger in Paris and discusses the idea of buying the Turkish Public Debt to be able to negotiate for the Charter as one Power dealing with another.

February 6: Herzl travels to London and tries to win Rothschild for his plan. Despite the efforts of British Zionists, Rothschild refuses to receive him.

February 12: Herzl meets Lady Battersea, Rothschild's cousin in the apartment of Israel Zangwil.

February 22 - 25: Herzl writes letters to Zionists in France, Italy, England and America for parliamentary intervention against immigration restrictions in Palestine. He considers to transfer the center of his action to London but drops the plan because he does not want to separate from his parents.

March 20: Russian bank director Levontin presents his plan to buy up the shares of the Jaffa-Jerusalem railroad. Levontin will be the assistant manager of the Bank in London.

April 10: Herzl meets Arminius Vámbéry in Budapest. He suggests to travel to Turkey to tell the Sultan he should send for Herzl.

End of April: Herzl reads Moses Hess "Rome and Jerusalem".

May 7 - 8: Herzl finally receives an audience with the Sultan.

May 9 - 23: Together with David Wolffsohn and Oskar Marmorek Herzl travels to Constantinople.

May 17: Meeting between Herzl and the Sultan in Constantinople.The Sultan bestows on Herzl the Grand Cordon of the Mejidiye.

May 18: Herzl is called to the palace again. He is presented a tie-pin with yellow stones. Herzl hands out the sum of 40.000 francs to Nouri Bey and Crespi for having brought the audience about.

May 19: Herzl sends a letter to the Sultan and asks for a final audience before his departure.

May 20: Herzl dictates the resumé "for the special benefit of the weak understanding of His Imperial Majesty of the Khalifate."

Postcard from Constantinople.

May 29: The English Zionist Federation congratulates Herzl and assures him loyalty.

May 30: Herzl meets Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden, who tries to get him an audience with the Czar.

May 31: Herzl travels to Paris to begin the raising of the money, which is to be the first step toward the obtaining of the Charter. The negotiations in Paris are fruitless.

June 11: London: Banquet at the The Maccabaeans with Israel Zangwil and Sir Francis Montefiore and other influential and wealthy Jews. But the successes in London are merely social.

July 11: Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden informs Herzl that the Czar refuses to receive him.

December 26 - 31: The Fifth Zionist Congress convenes in Basel. The Jewish National Fund is established.

The Jewish Colonial Trust, the monetary arm or bank of the World Zionist Organization, finally raises sufficient sums to be established. By late 1901, 250.000 Pounds are collected.



The 12 volume "Jewish Encyclopedia" begins publication in the U.S.

Simon Dubnow (1860-1941), Russian historian, conceives of the political theory called "Autonomism".

The "Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden" is founded and concentrates its activities on education. By World War I it will have established about 50 schools, including 29 in Palestine.

Martin Buber (1878-1965), German philosopher, is appointed editor of "Die Welt", the central weekly organ of the Zionist movement.

"The Maccabaean", a Zionist monthly is founded in the U.S.

The Jewish Museum in Frankfurt is established.

Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi (1859-1906), Austrian diplomat, publishes "Antisemitism Throughout the Ages", in which he regards antisemitism as the result of envy, intolerance, and lack of education.

Tensions between the Jewish Colonization Association and the villagers in Palestine. Attempts to involve the Zionist Organization are unsuccessful.


Queen Victoria dies. Her death marks the end of the Victorian era in England.

Pablo Picasso begins his "blue period".

German writer Thomas Mann achieves fame with his first novel "Die Buddenbrooks".


Theodor Herzl
Jewish History & Culture
General History & Culture



January 20: Herzl writes to Israel Zangwil and Joseph Cowen and describes the financial plans regarding Turkey.

January 25: Herzl proposes to Franz Oppenheimer the creation of a model cooperative colony in El Arish.

February 5: Herzl is called to Constantinople. He arrives on the 14th, in the company of Joseph Cowen. The first real negotiations are conducted with Turkey.

February 16: In a letter to the Sultan, Herzl summarizes his negotiations. The Sultan's decision is unfavorable.

February 22 - 23: Herzl travels to Munich and meets the banker Reitlinger. Herzl proposes the Turkish suggestion of Jewish immigration to Asia Minor and Mesopotamia and the exploitation of mines. Reitlinger considers the matter too costly, risky and unsafe.

March 5: Leopold Greenberg, one of Herzl's most devoted followers and representative in London suggests that Herzl should appear before the Royal Commission in London.

March 6: Herzl informs the Sultan that on March 15th three million francs will be deposited to his account in banks in Paris, Berlin and London.

March 13: The Sultan approves the Rouvier project (from the French government) for the consolidation of the public debt.

March 17: Against the resistance of some members of the Actions Committee - and particularly of Ussishkin - Herzl is authorized to obtain three letters of credit, each for a million francs, from banks in Paris, Berlin and London to be deposited in Turkish banks.

March 25: Herzl is informed that the Sultan studied his plan. Herzl is asked what plans he has for the regulation of the Turkish debts under more favorable conditions than those submitted by the French.

April 9: Herzl writes to Lord Rothschild in London asking for a meeting in London.

April 30: Herzl completes his Palestine Novel "Altneuland" - Old New Land."

May 4 - 7: Herzl in Berlin. Herzl talks to the director of the Deutsche Bank through which the Zionist movement would like to buy the Deutsche Palästinabank. For the first time Herzl meets Franz Oppenheimer.

May 18: Herzl receives a letter from Constantinople that his letter concerning a request for the creation of an Israelite University in Jerusalem was submitted to the Sultan.

June 3 - 11: Journey to Paris and London.

June 4 - 6: Paris. Herzl receives the invitation of appear before the Royal Commission for Alien Immigration in London.

June 9: Herzl's father dies in Vienna. Herzl goes back to Vienna for the funeral.

June 20: Herzl learns that Turkey accepted the Rouvier project.

June 30 - July 17: Journey to London.

July 4: Meeting with Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild in London.

July 4: The Sultan asks Herzl top come to Constantinople immediately.

July 7: Herzl appears before the Royal Commission.

July 8: Herzl visits Lord James, chairman of the Commission.

July 9: Another interview with Lord Rothschild takes place and Herzl submits the details of a Colonization Company for the development of Sinai, El Arish and Cyprus. Rothschild promises to discuss the plan with the British Minister for the Colonies, Joseph Chamberlain.

July 12: Herzl submits a written outline of the plan and the financial side to Rothschild. "... May I point out that I have drawn up this plan for you because you declared yourself opposed to Palestine."
Herzl also suggests settlement in Mesopotamia, as proposed to him by the Sultan.

July 22 - August 5: Journey to Turkey.
Herzl and Wolffsohn leave for Constantinople. Herzl gives a full detailed report in "Die Welt": "The negotiations have again led to no results." Herzl comes to the conclusion that the direct road to Palestine was for the time being blocked. He hopes to advance the indirect road of El Arish.
Herzl offers to liquidate the entire Ottoman national debt in return for a concession to "Haifa and its environs."

August 18: Herzl receives a letter from Rothschild, filled with warnings against ambitious and over-hasty plans, and characterizing the idea of Palestine as a myth.

August 27: Herzl writes to the Polish writer Pauline Korvin-Piatrovska asking her to obtain an audience with the Czar.

September 22: Herzl is granted an interview with Colonial Minister Joseph Chamberlain.

October 5: Herzl sends a copy of "Altneuland" to the Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden and to Rothschild.
"Altneuland" appears almost simultaneously in a Hebrew translation, "Tel Aviv", by Nahum Sokolow.

October 18 - 27: Journey to London.

October 22: Meeting with Colonial Minister Joseph Chamberlain: Herzl presents the plan for the colonization of Cyprus and the Sinai Peninsula, including El Arish: Jewish settlers under a Jewish administration.

October 24: Another meeting with Lord Rothschild and appointment in the British Foreign Office.

October 27: Herzl arrives in Vienna.

October 28 - 29: Zionist Annual Conference: The Anglo-Palestine Company is sanctioned. It will begin operations in summer 1903.

Herzl's health deteriorates. After the Annual Conference, Herzl finds himself in a state of collapse, incapable of writing a single line. He reports himself sick to the office of the Neue Freie Presse and goes for a rest cure to Edlach, a little village at the foot of the Rax Alpes, south of Vienna.

November 5: Herzl's London representative, Leopold Greenberg, meets Lord Cromer and Egyptian prime minister Boutros Ghali Pasha. He succeeds to win them over to the Zionist cause.

December 2: In order to renew the connection with Austrian Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber, Herzl sends him a copy of "Altneuland".

December 18: Great Britain favors the sending of a small commission to the Sinai Peninsula to report on conditions and prospects.

December 30: Herzl thinks about the irrigation of the desert land by means of the Nile.



Moshe Wallach (1866-1957), a German physician, who settled in Jerusalem in 1891, establishes a modern hospital, Shaarei Zedek, outside the Old City of Jerusalem.

The Anglo-Palestine Bank is established in London.

The "Committee of Zionist Societies in Eretz Israel" is founded in Rishon LeZion with the participation of delegates from Jaffa. Notification is sent to Theodor Herzl.

The "Jüdischer Verlag", the first Zionist publishing house in western Europe is established by the Democratic Faction of the Fifth Zionist Congress. Der Verlag will publish literary, cultural, and artistic accomplishments of the Jewish people. Ephraim Moses Lilien is the first artist involved in the Zionist movement.

The Second Conference of Russian Zionists is held in Minsk. Control of cultural activity dominates the debate. Ahad HaAm and Nahum Sokolow (1859-1936) demand national cultural activity.

Isaac Jacob Reines, rabbi in Lida, convenes a conference of Orthodox rabbis and lay leaders in Vilna from which the religious Zionist movement, Mizrachi, will be formed.

The first Jewish National Fund stamp is issued, imprinted with the word Zion and a Star of David.
Also the "Blue Box" emerges and will become one of the best-known symbols of Zionist activity.

A cholera epidemic spreads through Palestine.

Foundation of Sejera, a village in the Lower Galilee.

The first Jewish settlement in the Jordan Valley is established.

Heinrich August Meissner, a German engineer employed in railroad construction by the Ottoman Empire, begins the laying of the Dar'a-Haifa line (Valley Line).


End of the Boer War.

The Teddy bear is introduced.

Theodor Herzl
Jewish History & Culture
General History & Culture




January 1 - 4: Herzl in Edlach.

January 2: Joseph Chamberlain in East Africa. He finds a wonderful piece of land for Jewish settlement.

January 6 - 26: Journey to Paris and London.

January 7: Paris: Herzl discusses the reply to the British government with Nordau, Leopold Greenberg and Alexander Marmorek and to take counsel on subsequent action.

January 12: Herzl arrives in London.

January 13 - 16: Herzl begins the preparations for the expedition. Meetings in the Foreign Ministry and with Lord Rothschild.

January 15: Meeting with Lord Rothschild. Herzl shows him the correspondence with the British government and asks for three million pounds from the I. C. A. for the Jewish Eastern Company.

January 16: Lunch with Lord Rothschild and meeting with Sir Thomas Sanderson, Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs in Downing Street. Herzl submits the itinerary of the Commission and the membership. Sanderson recommends Sir Benjamin Baker, builder of the Aswan Dam, as irrigation engineer.
Herzl is concerned about each and every detail.

January 21: Herzl travels to Paris.

January 24: Meeting with Max Nordau and Alexander Marmorek in Paris.

January 28: Herzl appoints Leopold Kessler as leader of the commission "for the exploration of the feasibility of settling in the northern half of the Sinai Peninsula.

January 29: Herzl and the Actions Committee in Vienna work out the outline of a Charter which is taken to Cairo by the expedition and delivered to Leopold Greenberg.

January 30: Leopold Greenberg, Herzl's representative in London, leaves for Cairo to carry on political negotiations.

February 10: Herzl writes to Lord Rothschild, reports about the commission and asks for a meeting in Paris.

February 11: Herzl writes to the Grand Vizir and summarizes the proposal: Jewish colonization, a loan of 2 million Turkish pounds.

February 15: Herzl sends a new proposal to the Sultan: Colonization in the Sanjak of Acre in return for a guaranteed annual payment of 100.000 Turkish pounds.
Herzl is already thinking about Jewish colonization in Africa, but makes one more attempt with the Ottoman Empire.

February 17: Herzl meets Dr. Abdullah Djevdet Bey whose poetry he reviewed in the Neue Freie Presse. Djevdet offers his help in Turkey.
Leopold Greenberg reports from Egypt that it will be impossible to obtain a Charter.

February 22: Boutros Ghali writes the conditions for the Jewish settlement in Sinai.

February 23: Leopold Greenberg leaves Egypt.

February 25: Herzl receives a telegram from the commission in El Arish: "Vicinity has made a favorable impression."

February 26: Leopold Greenberg arrives in Brindisi and sends a short telegram whose obscurity of wording strikes Herzl unpleasantly.

February 27: Another favorable report from the expedition.

February 28: Max Nordau meets Leopold Greenberg in Paris an sends a wire to Herzl: "Greenberg had obtained everything that can possibly be conceded in an official agreement."

March 2: Herzl receives Greenberg's report.

March 11: Oskar Marmorek returns to Vienna.

March 18 - April 9: Herzl's journey to Egypt.

March 25: Cairo. Herzl meets Lord Cromer and Boutros Ghali.
The Zionist Commission returns to Suez.

March 27: The Commission meets Herzl in Cairo.

March 28: Another meeting with the Commission. Herzl, Goldsmid and Stephens visit Lord Cromer. He states that the Zionists should now demand the concession from the Egypt government. For this purpose the recommends Carton de Wiart, a lawyer.

March 29: Herzl meets Carton de Wiart. "We will give up the word 'Charter' but not the thing itself."

March 30: Carton de Wiart talks to the lawyer of the Egyptian government who recommends to hold the concession brief; also it should be a lease and not a freehold. Herzl demands a 99-year lease.

April 1: Herzl meets McIlwraithe, the legal adviser of the Khedive. Herzl presents the Zionist proposal. McIlwraithe promises that the government will make a counter-proposal.

April 2: Meeting with McIlwraithe. An immediate counter-proposal is out of question. The size of the land and the duration of the contract are discussed.

April 16: Herzl arrives in Paris and confers with Lord Rothschild, Zadoc Kahn and other members of the ICA on the method of its participation, in order to push the project with the British government.

April 21: Herzl arrives in London.

April 22: Herzl meets Lord Rothschild who tells him that Edmond de Rothschild is delighted with the plan.

April 23: Herzl is received by Joseph Chamberlain, who just came back from Africa.
The Chamberlain-Herzl negotiations of the "Uganda scheme" are the first recognition of the president of the Zionist Organization as representing the Jewish people.

April 25: Journey back to Paris.

April 26: Meeting with I.A.C. people in Paris who read Stephen's report about the expedition to the Sinai Peninsula. The reaction is favorable, but they are making reservations.

May 8: Goldsmid reports from Cairo that the negotiations stand bad.

May 11: The El-Arish project fails. Herzl writes in his diary: "I thought the Sinai plan was such a sure thing that I no longer wanted to buy a family vault in the Döbling cemetery, where my father is provisionally laid to rest. Now I consider the affair so wrecked that I have already been to the district court and am acquiring vault No. 28."

May 19: Menachem Ussishkin arrives in Vienna to prepare his visit in Palestine to make land purchases for the Geulah Committee and to organize the Yishuv.

May 23: Herzl writes to Wenzel von Plehve, Russian Minister of the Interior and to Konstantin Pobiedonostzev to ask for an audience with the Czar. The Kishinev pogrom has a shattering effect on Herzl.
Herzl also turns to Bertha von Suttner and asks for her assistance in this matter.

May 26: Herzl meets the Portuguese ambassador in Vienna to ask for a territory habitable and cultivable by Europeans.

May 30: Herzl informs Zadoc Kahn and Lord Rothschild about the failure of the El-Arish Project.

June 4: Herzl renews his efforts with Great Britain and again submits plans to Constantinople. He is pressing for a Charter for Mesopotamia.

June 13: The British government is willing to to receive a preliminary draft.

June 17: Herzl writes to Lord Rothschild that there is a chance to get a good piece of land from the Sultan.

Beginning of July: The first branch of the Anglo-Palestine Bank - the Zionist Bank - opens in Jaffa. Its manager is Zalman David Levontin, one of the founders of Rishon LeZion.

July 8: Herzl writes to Pauline Korvin-Piatrovska and asks her to intervene for him in Russia. Wenzel von Plehve calls for the suppression of the Zionist Organization in Russia, the sale of Bank shares had already been forbidden.

July 20: Herzl writes to Leopold Greenberg in London to do whatever possible to revive the Sinai enterprise. "We must indeed take East Africa, or at least the Charter, but we must not deceive ourselves as to the fact that all the non-English Jews are against East Africa. I shall have to use a great deal of patience for it, whereas El Arish is popular." Herzl also prepares steps to approach Portugal for a Charter for Mozambique, Belgium for a territory in the Congo and Italy for a section of Tripoli.

July 18: Wenzel von Plehve is ready to receive Herzl.

August 5 - 18: Herzl's journey to Russia.

August 7: Herzl arrives in St. Petersburg, where he seeks Russian intervention with Turkey on behalf of his Zionist proposals to secure Jewish settlement in Palestine, and to permit open Zionist activity in Russia. He is received twice by Count Wenzel von Plehve, Russian minister of the interior, who is believed to be responsible for the Kishinev pogrom. Herzl's most important achievement is Wenzel von Plehve's acquisition as a supporter of Zionism.

August 11: Herzl meets Jews from all circles in St. Petersburg, a banquet is arranged by the Russian Zionists.

August 16: Stop in Vilna, where a tremendous ovation is awaiting him. Old Reb Shleimele lifts his hands over Herzl and pronounces the Priestly Benediction.

After one day of rest in Altaussee, Herzl leaves for Basle and the Sixth Congress.

August 20: Herzl arrives in Basel.

August 21: Herzl reports the Uganda offer and the Russian journey to the Greater Actions Committee.

August 22: After attending the Shabbat service in the Basel synagogue, Herzl invites a number of leaders (the Russians Mandelstamm, Yelski, Bernstein-Kohan and Tshlenov; besides Wolfssohn, Marmorek, Cowen and Zangwill) into Joseph Cowen's room in order to win them over to the Uganda Project. The final decision is to present the offer to the Congress.

August 23 - 28: The Sixth Zionist Congress convenes in Basel. It is the site of confrontations between Herzl and his supporters and the Zionists of Zion, who reject the plan for settlement in Uganda out of hand. Herzl brings the Uganda scheme is a temporary measure, emphasizing that Palestine remains Zionism's final object. Herzl is supported by Max Nordau, who terms the Uganda scheme a "Nachtasyl" (refuge for the night), and is opposed by Russian Zionists.

August 29: "Die Welt" publishes the declaration of the British Government on the allocation of a "Jewish territory" in East Africa.

August 31: Herzl in Konstanz on Bodensee. Herzl's last meeting with Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden in Mainau. Herzl presents his difficult dilemma between East Africa and Palestine. "We would be glad to renounce the good land of East Africa for the poor land of Palestine. I in particular would see an honorable rescue for our poor Jews if this exchange could be made."

September 5: Letter to Wenzel von Plehve. Herzl reports on the Congress.

September 13: Herzl writes to Austrian Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. He encloses a copy of a letter Plehve addressed to Herzl. He expresses the hope that also Austria will support the Zionist undertaking.

October 27: Herzl travels to Edlach.

October 30: "Die Welt" publishes Ussishkin's letter and Herzl's answer. Menachem Ussishkin opposes an expedition to Uganda. ("Entweder Herr Ussishkin weiss einen kürzeren und besseren Weg, um das jüdische Volk in den öffentlich-rechtlichen Besitz Palästinas zu bringen - dann ist es von einem so guten Zionisten nicht schön, dass er uns diesen Weg nicht schleunigst angibt. Oder er weiss keinen - dann möge er nicht mit leeren Redensarten die Einigkeit im Zionismus stören, die mehr wert ist als ein paar Grundstücke in Palästina.")

November 11: Herzl writes the "Letter to the Jewish People".

December 4: Herzl reports in his diary: "The Russian members of the A. C., particularly Usshiskin, Jacobson, etc. are in open rebellion."

December 5: Leopold Greenberg and Herzl hold consultations about the line of activity to be pursued in England. Herzl has the impression that the British government is withdrawing the East African offer. Greenberg is to press once more for Sinai and El-Arish.

December 11: Herzl asks for an interview with the Austrian Foreign Minister Agenor Goluchowsky. He writes to Wenzel von Plehve and repeats his request that the Russian ambassador in Constantinople be directed to give his support to the Zionist demands. He also pursues his efforts to open a branch of the Jewish Colonial Trust in St. Petersburg.

December 14: In a letter to Sir Francis Montefiore, President of the English Zionist Federation, Herzl explains his position on Uganda.

December 19: Chaim Zelig Louban, a 27 year old student, attempts to assassinate Max Nordau at a Chanukkah ball of the Paris Zionist society. He approaches Nordau, cries "Death to Nordau, the East African" and fires two shots. Nordau writes to Herzl: "Yesterday evening I got an installment on the debt of gratitude which the Jewish people owes me for my selfless labors on its behalf. I say this without bitterness, only in sorrow. How unhappy is our people, to be able to produce such deeds."

In "Die Welt" Herzl publishes an account of the Kharkov conference, together with a declaration calling upon those who had voted for the ultimatum to surrender their mandates. In a subsequent issue a digest of the minutes of the Conference appears.

Portrait: Herzl, 1903



The American section of Mizrachi is established.

In Kishinev, a pogrom results in 45 Jewish dead, 86 seriously wounded, 500 other casualties, and 1.500 shops and homes plundered and destroyed.

Chaim Nachman Bialik, Russian Hebrew poet, writes "Al ha-Shehitah" - "On the Slaughter" and "Be-Ir ha-Haregah" - "In the City of Slaughter". The second poem establishes Bialik's reputation as the national poet of the Jewish people.

A pogrom in Gomel leaves eight Jews dead and 100 injured. For the first time a Jewish self-defense group fights the attackers.

"The New Colossus", a poem written by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887) in 1883 is engraved on a bronze plaque and placed on the base of the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Earthquake in Jerusalem.

The first parcel of land in Palestine is acquired by the Jewish National Fund. The noted philanthropist Isaac Leib Goldberg of Vilna transfers ownership of 200 dunams in the village of Hadera to the J.N.F.
In November the first large area of land in the Jordan Valley will be acquired.

The Laemel School in Jerusalem inaugurates a new building with the presence of mayors and Jewish elders, representatives of different religious communities and the consuls of Austria, Germany and England. Included in the school's curriculum are music and drawing lessons, as well as gymnastics.

August 23: The First Assembly of representatives of the Jewish Yishuv in Palestine takes place in Zikhron Ya'acov with 67 delegates. The dominant figure of the event is Menahem Ussishkin, who achieves a passage of a decision to reject the Uganda Plan. The assembly establishes the Palestinian Federation.
Ussishkin is also the initiator and moving spirit behind the Kharkov Conference that demands that Herzl abandons the Uganda scheme.



Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy renew their Triple Alliance.

A German firm begins construction of the Berlin-Baghdad railway.

The Ford Motor Co. is created.

The first moving picture to tell a story, "The Great Train Robbery" is produced.

Theodor Herzl
Jewish History & Culture
General History & Culture



January 17 - 30: Journey to Italy.
Herzl leaves for Italy, remains in Venice for one day ("Truly a blue Monday. In the evening I could not be bothered to put on my dinner jacket for the 1 1/2 Englishmen in the Grand Hotel, so I went to Bauer's Austrian Beer House"), and continues to Rome via Florence.

January 22: Herzl is received by Rafael Merry del Val, the Papal Secretary, who promises to take into consideration the matter of supporting the Zionist aspirations.

January 23: Herzl is received by the Italian King, Vittorio Emanuele III. The king shows a serious interest in Zionism, but political support in Constantinople is left to Foreign Minister Tittoni.
Tittoni asks for a memorandum and promises to write to the Italian ambassador in Constantinople to associate himself with the steps taken by Russia.

January 25: Herzl is received by Pope Pius X, who declares, he cannot support the return of the infidel Jews to the Holy Land. ("If you come to Palestine and settle your people there, we want to have churches and priests ready to baptize all of you.")

January 27: Herzl receives Leopold Greenberg's telegram about a definitive offer of the British Government, a new territory in Nandi. Greenberg advises immediate acceptance and the sending of an expedition.

February 3: Herzl telegraphs back that he can take up the proposal only after the most careful investigation.

February 9: Greenberg cables to accept the offer without delay because a governmental change was impending. Under this pressure Herzl writes back the demanded consent. On the next day he cables Greenberg again to undertake nothing until he received Herzl's written instructions.

February 24: "Yesterday I had a most curious visitor: Ali Nuri Bey ... His proposal ... comes to this: Sail into the Bosporus with two cruisers, bombard Yildiz, let the Sultan flee or capture him, put in another Sultan (Murad or Reshad), but first form a provisional government - which is to give us the Charter for Palestine. ..."

March 12: Herzl authorizes Dr, Leopold Kahn to enter into negotiations with the Ottoman Empire for renting the administrative revenues of the Sanjak of Acre and for a loan to be obtained for the Imperial treasury.

March 28: Death of Colonel Goldsmid in Paris.

April 11: Conference of the Greater Actions Committee in Vienna. In the spirit of the Sixth Congress it is decided to send an expedition to East Africa. The reconciliation conference was Herzl's last great achievement.

End of April: Herzl makes preparations to proceed to Paris and London in early May in order to arrange the financing of the Uganda expedition. He makes contact with the New York financier, Jacob Schiff. Schiff declares himself ready to negotiate a loan for Russia if it proved ready to do something for the Jews.

April 30: Herzl has an interview with Austrian Foreign Minister Agenor Goluchowsky, who gives evidence of an earnest interest in Zionism and advises Herzl to work in England for a Parliamentary expression of opinion in favor of Palestine.

Immediately after this audience, a consultation of his doctors establishes an alarming change in the condition of his heart muscles. Herzl is ordered to Franzensbad for six weeks.

May 6: Herzl writes to David Wolffsohn. His letter ends with the words: "Don't do anything foolish while I am dead" - "Machet keine Dummheiten, während ich tot bin."
"Die Welt" informs the public that Herzl has to take a longer holiday for health reasons.

May 9: Nissan Katzenelson visits Herzl in Franzensbad in reports the results of his trip to London. Jacob Schiff had declared himself ready to negotiate a loan for Russia if it proved to do something for the Jews.

May 13: Herzl writes to Wenzel von Plehve asking for an audience for Katzenelson.

May 14: Herzl writes to the Austrian Foreign Ministry. He reports on this audience with Agenor Goluchowsky.

May 16: Herzl's diary breaks off with a report to Jacob Schiff.

May 21: Herzl returns to Vienna after an unsuccessful therapy in Franzensbad.

June 3: He leaves for Edlach accompanied by his wife and Kremenetzky.

June 30: Herzl suffers a severe bronchial catarrh, which turns into pneumonia. Oskar Marmorek proceeds to Edlach with two doctors.

July 2: Herzl asks to call his mother, who had been kept in ignorance of his condition. Reverend William Hechler visits him: "Tell them all my greetings, and tell them that I have given my heart's blood for my people."

Sunday, July 3: Herzl dies in Edlach at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. (20 Tammuz 5664).

July 7: Theodor Herzl is laid to rest at the Döblinger Friedhof. Thousands of Jews take part in the funeral procession.
In his will Herzl asks that his body be buried next to his father, "to remain there until the Jewish people will carry my remains to Palestine."

On 16 August 1949, Herzl's remains are transferred to Jerusalem and reburied on Mount Herzl.

Herzl's last photograph.



A conference of the Mizrachi Zionists convenes in Pressburg. The aim is to counteract irreligious declarations of many Zionist spokesmen and to make it possible for the Orthodox to remain in the movement.

British Prime Minister Arthur James Balfour (1848-1930) submits a restrictive Aliens Bill to Parliament to regulate immigration to Great Britain. The bill is withdrawn after it is attacked by Winston Churchill (1875-1965) and other opposition leaders as inhuman and antisemitic.

Forty-three pogroms throughout Russia are reported during the year.

Aharon David Gordon (1856-1922), Hebrew writer and Zionist thinker, leaves Russia and settles in Palestine.

Jacques Faitlovitch (1881-1955) spends 18 months in Ethiopia studying beliefs and customs of the Falashas. He believes the Falashas are Jewish and that the world Jewry has an obligation to save them from extinction.

Arthur Ruppin (1876-1943), German Zionist leader, writes "The Jews in the Modern World", the first work of Jewish sociology.

The first Zionist Organization research expedition departs to explore Palestine and Transjordan for potential settlement sites, headed by a German geologist, Max Blanckenhorn, and the young Yishuv agronomist, Aharon Aaronsohn.

The Anglo-Palestine Bank opens a second branch, in Jerusalem. It is located in the building of the Austrian consulate.


Great Britain and France enter their Entente Cordiale.

In February the Russian-Japanese War begins. Japan attacks Port Arthur.

July: The Trans-Siberian Railroad, linking the Ural Mountains to the Pacific coast is completed after 13 years of construction.

The Imam Yahya of Yemen leads a revolt against the Ottoman rule. The Turks will evacuate the country in 1911.

Ground broken on Panama Canal.





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05 Nov 2007 / 24 Heshvan 5768 0